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How to Defluoridate Water and Waste Water | Fluoride Removal Treatment Systems

Fluoride is a natural, monatomic anion mineral found in foods, water, soil and the earth’s crust.

Fluoride ions have a number of important industrial and medical applications. For example, they are used in the production of aluminum, glass, and ceramics, as well as in water treatment as a way to prevent tooth decay.

Nowadays, it can be found in toothpaste, as well as groundwater sources, but recent concerns have arisen over the compound’s adverse health and environmental effects.

In this article we will explore the most common and effective technologies used to defluoridate water.

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What Are Fluoride Ions in our Water or Industrial Effluents?

Fluoride ions are atoms of the chemical element fluorine that have gained an extra electron, giving them a negative charge. Fluorine is a highly reactive and toxic element and is found in compounds such as fluorite (calcium fluoride) and cryolite (sodium aluminum fluoride).

Fluoride ions can easily form compounds with other elements, such as calcium and aluminum. In water and waste water, fluoride ions can exist as free ions or as part of a compound, such as hydrofluoric acid (HF).

Potential Health Hazards of Fluorides

Some researchers analyzed the health effects of fluoride and found that high levels of fluoride exposure were associated with an increased risk of several health problems, including fluorosis, skeletal fractures, and reduced IQ in children.

Over the past few decades, concerns have arisen about fluoride’s potentially harmful effects on health, including:

  • Thyroid Problems

  • Neurological Issues

  • Tooth and Bone Damage

  • Skin Problems

  • Cardiovascular Issues

  • Reproductive Problems

  • Neurological Issues

  • Tooth and Bone Damage

How to Remove Fluoride from Water or Waste Water

Given the health and environmental problems associated of water and waste water with high fluoride levels, it is necessary to use the correct treatment method to defluoridate water.

There are several treatment technologies that can be used to remove fluoride from water. Fluorides can be removed by:

  • Distillation

  • Reverse Osmosis

  • Activated Alumina

  • Ion Exchange

Distillation and Evaporation

The distillation process involves boiling water and collecting the steam in a vacuum evaporator. The steam is then cooled and condensed back into a liquid. Because fluoride has a higher boiling point than water, it is left behind when the water is vaporized, making distillation an effective way to remove it from water.

Reverse Osmosis

Reverse Osmosis is a filtration process that uses a membrane to remove contaminants from water. Reverse osmosis can effectively remove fluoride, as well as other contaminants such as bacteria and viruses. In short, Reverse Osmosis equipment uses water filters (membranes) that filter out fluoride from any kind of water feed.

Activated Alumina

This is a type of filter media made from aluminium oxide that is highly effective at removing fluoride from water. It works by adsorbing the fluoride ions onto its surface, where they can be easily removed through filtration.

Ion Exchange

This is a process that involves exchanging ions in the water with ions from a resin or other media. It can be used to remove fluoride from water by exchanging the fluoride ions for ions of a different type, such as sodium or potassium.


It is important to note that the effectiveness of these technologies can vary depending on the specific circumstances of the project. For this reason, it is always a good idea to consult with a water treatment professional or a lab to determine the best approach for your specific needs. For a free consultation you can get in touch with us by clicking here.


How Vacuum Evaporators Remove Fluoride from Water and Industrial Effluents

A vacuum evaporator is a type of water treatment equipment that can be used to remove fluoride from water effluent, or waste water.

In this process the water evaporates while the fluoride ions are left behind in the concentrated residue, thus to obtain defluorinated water. This residue can then be removed and disposed of, while the steam is collected and cooled, condensing it back into a liquid. The resulting water will be relatively free of fluoride, as well as other contaminants that may have been present in the original effluent, as shown in the picture below.

Distillation is an effective and affordable method to remove fluoride from water. As the water is heated, the steam evaporates from the boiling water, where it is captured in another container. This process is particularly useful in Zero Liquid Discharge systems.

There are several factors that can affect the efficiency of a vacuum evaporator in removing fluoride from water and industrial effluent, including the temperature, pressure, and flow rate, as well as the specific type of equipment used.


How to Design a Treatment System for Fluoride in Water Removal

The first step to design a fluoride in water removal treatment system is to run a complete laboratory analysis of the water and assess the precise levels of chlorides in water or wastewater.

Once the analysis is ready, we can choose and configure the best equipment for your application, whether it’s a household drinking water or industrial application.

Our most common approach is to install a pre-treatment system and then, depending on the project requirements, manufacture the treatment equipment.

For more information about our treatment systems for fluoride removal and reduction kindly get in touch at:


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