Textile Effluents: Treatment and Disposal


Textile industries consume different kinds of manmade dyes or other chemicals and release huge extents of highly polluted water into the environment.



The main pollution in textile wastewater come from dyeing and finishing processes. These processes require the input of a wide range of chemicals and dyestuffs, which generally are organic compounds of complex structure. Water is used as the principal medium to apply dyes and various chemicals to textiles. Since many of them are not contained in the final product, they became waste and cause disposal problems.


This excessive dye laden wastewater has great impacts on photosynthetic activity in aquatic plants and animals, for example, fish. It may also affect human health due to the presence of components like heavy metals and chlorine in manmade dyes.


Major pollutants in textile wastewaters are high suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand, heat, colour, acidity, and other soluble substances. Pollutants generated by textile mills include BOD, SS, oil and grease, sulphides, phenols and chromium.

 

Textile Effluent Wastewater Treatment Methods


Textile wastewater handling is a blend of different methods. The principal phase comprises typically of physical steps. Physicochemical methods have been extensively used in textile treatment plants and a combination of various methods has been proven efficient for this purpose.



Textile Effluent Wastewater Treatment Methods
Textile Effluent Wastewater Treatment Methods. Holkar, C. R. & al. (2016)


Electrocoagulation


In this technique, effluents are treated in a chamber in which metal electrodes are used to treat wastewater. Electrode plates are suspended in effluent solution, and it can remove metal oxide at a specific pH. Metal oxides are coagulated and can be easily removed from the solution. This method is effective and has been reviewed in many articles.


This technique uses direct current source between metal electrodes immersed in the effluent, which causes the dissolution of electrode plates into the effluent. The metal ions, at an appropriate pH, can form wide range of coagulated species and metal hydroxides that destabilize and aggregate particles or precipitate and adsorb the dissolved contaminants.




Reverse Osmosis


Reverse osmosis membranes have a holding degree of 90% or greater for most kinds of ionic complexes. Decolorization and removal of chemical auxiliaries in dye house wastewater can be done in a single step by reverse osmosis.


Reverse osmosis causes the elimination of all mineral salts, hydrolysed responsive dyes, and chemical auxiliaries. This process needs a very high energy since a very high pressure is required for filtering the textile wastewater.



Biodegradation Process


The biodegradation process is applied to remove the organic substrates in the textile effluent wastewater. The degradation of manmade dyes by microbes is easy to process while it involves a complex mechanism.


For the growth of microorganisms, suitable conditions and depth knowledge are required. The degradation performance is depending on the presence of organic matter like dye and load of microorganisms, the temperature of waste, pH of waste, and concentration of dissolved oxygen in the system.


Anaerobic process uses microorganisms to remove the pollutants in wastewater presence of sufficient dissolved oxygen while using microorganisms without oxygen to remove pollutants from wastewater known as anaerobic methods.


Compared to physical and chemical methods, biodegradation process have the following advantages: eco-friendly, low-cost, low infrastructure and operating costs, low solid wastes, and complete mineralization into nontoxic end products.


 
YASA ET can help you to find the most suitable solution to your textile effluent wastewater problems. For more information kindly get in touch with our professionals.
 

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YASA ET cooperate with many companies in different industries, including ZF, Schaeffler, ABNEN and many others for their wastewater treatment projects.


Our customers cover multiple industries and fields such as auto parts manufacturing, surface treatment, semiconductors, bearings, metal works, just to name a few.



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Sources:

Textile Industry Effluent Treatment Techniques (hindawi.com)

Textile Wastewater Treatment Options: A Critical Review (researchgate.net)

A critical review on textile wastewater treatments: Possible approaches

Industrial wastewater treatment